Who should have a Bone Mineral Density Test?

How to measure a low bone mineral density?
Osteoporosis is the term for 'porous bones'. It is a typical old age disease occurring frequently in woman after menopause (postmenopausal osteoporosis) but may also develop in men. A high bone density indicates a healthy bone structure and the reduced risk to brake. The bone density test verifies the grade of osteoporosis and should be carried out each second or third year depending on the age and medical history of the patient. In previous years osteoporosis could only be tested after a bone was broken. Today's densitometry scan (bone density test, also DXA scan) uses X-rays to measure the content of bone minerals within a certain bone segment.
The shown bone density scale is used internationally and was approved by the World Health Organization.

The 'ideal' bone density is usually in people in their twenties. Furthermore, the average bone density in young adults lies at the 0-point. Not everybody is the same and has the equal bone structure; therefore the bone density can range between +1 and -1. When your bone density moves in the more negative field on the scale (e.g. after 1 year) you may have lost calcium from you bones. The transition to Osteoporosis is called "osteopenia" and ranges between -1 and -2.5. The bone density is relatively thin and periodical checkups should be performed to avoid an even greater slip to the negative side of the scale. If the bone density shows the factor -2.5 and up to -4 a person has osteoporosis no matter where the bone density was measured. A reliable bone density test should have a couple of hips and lumbar spine readings. It is useless to take readings only from the L1-L4 area since those readings underestimate the quantity of osteoporoses present.

1_________0_________-1__________-2________ -2.5________-3__________-4_________
Normal Bone density